After fighting with SQL for ten minutes, I finally found the right setting to allow SQL connection over port 1433.
java - How can I make MS SQL Server available for connections? - Stack Overflow: Open the Sql Server Configuration Manager (Start -> Programs -> Microsoft SQL Server 2008 -> Configuration Tools)
Expand SQL Server Network Configuration -> [Your Server Instance]
Double click TCP/IP
Ensure Enabled is Yes
Under IP Addresses:
Scroll to the bottom and set the TCP Port under IP All, (Blank by default, set to 1433)
Find the IP address you want to connect to and set Enabled and Active to Yes